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World War I Poison Gas Essay - 1774 Words - StudyMode
Mustard gas, an almost odourless chemical, was distinguished by the serious blisters it caused both internally and externally, brought on several hours after exposure. Protection against mustard gas proved more difficult than against either chlorine or phosgene gas.
Phosgene caused much less coughing with the result that more of it was inhaled; it was consequently adopted by both German and Allied armies. Phosgene often had a delayed effect; apparently healthy soldiers were taken down with phosgene gas poisoning up to 48 hours after inhalation.
The Use Of Gas In Ww1 Essays 1 - 30 Anti Essays
For people who have ever been behind a fully loaded bus during rush-hour as it pulls away from a bus stop at peak acceleration, the smell is overwhelming and it is easy to imagine that diesel exhaust must be extremely toxic. The truth is quite different, however. Diesel exhaust smells bad, it may even look bad, and it may cause cancer. But, as a source of a toxic gas, specifically carbon monoxide, for killing anything in half-an-hour, diesel exhaust is thoroughly impractical even under heavy loads. The smell is due to small amounts of certain chemical components which are totally harmless except for some possible long-term effects. Carbon monoxide, the real potential killing ingredient, is completely odorless and is only present in trace amounts less than 1/2% by volume; at idle the amounts are less than 1/10 of one percent. The presence, or absence, of carbon monoxide has absolutely no relation to the smell of diesel exhaust.
A professional chemist named Roth foolishly and falsely testified that cyanide could NOT have penetrated brick and stucco more than just a few millimeters at most. The simple fact is that brick must be porous in order to allow good bonding between it and the mortar cement. Otherwise, one would have the relatively weak bonds that occur between mortar and granite (non-porous) for example. The porosity of brick allows the moisture in wet mortar to escape through the brick and, in effect, allows the mortar to adhere (temporarily) to the brick by suction even before the mortar has dried.
As to the porosity of brick and stucco, there is a simple test anyone can make. Take one or more pieces of brick and stucco and weigh them separately and dry. Then weigh them after they have been soaked in water, preferably overnight. The differences in weight will be due to the water absorbed and the porosity which is substantial. Water molecules of H2O are slightly heavier and larger than cyanide molecules of HCN based on their molecular weights. One of the reasons why cyanide, according to the German literature on Zyklon-B, was such a good fumigant is that the molecules were physically so small that they could penetrate even extremely small, microscopic openings. Since water can easily penetrate brick, cyanide must be able to penetrate also—right? To prevent losses of significant amounts of cyanide in their fumigation chambers, the German literature stressed the need for impermeable coatings on the gas chamber walls to prevent the cyanide from seeping out of the gas chambers. I imagine that even linseed oil-based paints would have been quite effective at reducing such losses. At the Birkenau delousing stations, the cyanide clearly had penetrated the double-brick walls from a clothes rack holding area a short distance from the actual gas chambers—and blossomed as on the exterior walls where they remain for everyone to easily see with their own eyes in spite of fifty years of weathering. In some of the pictures of the blue staining on the stuccoed interior walls of the delousing stations, one can clearly see outlines of the bricks behind the stuccot. Some bricks absorbed cyanide far more readily than others. Please see the images on
Poison gas in ww1 essay | fastpijummacankemimoresupa
However, those that were badly gassed soon suffered severe inflammation of the lungs. The critical stage for these men usually occurred within three to four hours after initially being gassed. At this point, either the soldier would recover after sleeping, or his health would deteriorate further with death occurring within the next twenty-four hours. Mustard gas produces a large amount of casualties that require extensive medical treatment. Initially some soldiers did not realize that they had been gassed with mustard because the effects were not apparent for up to twelve hours after exposure. An unidentified Allied nurse stated:
"I wish those people who write so glibly about this being a holy war and the orators who talk so much about going on no matter how long the war lasts and what it may mean, could see a case - to say nothing of ten cases - of mustard gas in its early stages - could see the poor things burnt and blistered all over with great mustard-coloured suppurating blisters, with blind eyes . . .all sticky and stuck together, always fighting for breath, with voices a mere whisper, saying that their throats are closing and they know they will choke."
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Use of poison gas in ww1? | Yahoo Answers
1987-1988 - Iraq uses chemical weapons (hydrogen cyanide, mustard gas) in its Anfal Campaign against the Kurds, most notably in the Halabja Massacre of 1988.
Types of Chemical Weapons - Chemical Warfare In WW1
The use of mustard gas - sometimes referred to as Yperite - also proved to have mixed benefits. While inflicting serious injury upon the enemy the chemical remained potent in soil for weeks after release: making capture of infected trenches a dangerous undertaking.
US Sgt Gas Mask WW1 Painted Diecast Metal.
As with chlorine and phosgene gas before it, the Allies promptly reciprocated by copying the Germans' use of mustard gas. By 1918 the use of use of poison gases had become widespread, particularly on the Western Front. If the war had continued into 1919 both sides had planned on inserting poison gases into 30%-50% of manufactured shells.
What role did poison gas play in WW1? | Yahoo Answers
In large part this was because of the increasing effectiveness of the methods used to protect against poison gas. Gas never turned out to be the weapon that turned the tide of the war, as was often predicted. Innovations in its use were quickly combated and copied by opposing armies in an ongoing cycle.
Poison Gas Ww1 Essay, Essay Wiki Dk, An Example Essay Outline
Remaining consistently ahead in terms of gas warfare development, Germany unveiled an enhanced form of gas weaponry against the Russians at Riga in September 1917: mustard gas (or Yperite) contained in artillery shells.
Mustard Gas Canister 12201 INFOUS
Until the end of the war, the German chemists generally remained well ahead of their Allied counterparts in the development of chemical agents and delivery systems. After Germany used phosgene, it took the Allies six months to employ it. The lag between the German and the Allied use of mustard gas was a year. However, while Germany remained ahead of the Allies in offensive chemical measures, they were not able to match the Allied defensive means against poison gases.
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