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educatorsthinkspace - Pedagogy of the Oppressed.

education in schools: Ask the question "how can schools becomemore integrated and cohesive?" Schools must not isolate children from lifeexperience. In designing a curriculum for transdisciplinary studies, look forrelationships and patterns in different subjects and organize the subjectmatter according to unifying themes. Seeing relationships and patterns resultsin the meaningful integration of the different subject areas. Useful metaphors:1. 'Embeddedness' Teaching is 'embedded' in learning. The tw

By Paulo Freire There are two types of people, the oppressed and the oppressors.

Making "real oppression more oppressive still by adding to it the realization of oppression" corresponds to the dialectical relation between the subjective and objective. Only in this interdependence is an authentic praxis possible, without which it is impossible to resolve the oppressor-oppressed contradiction. To achieve this goal, the oppressed must confront reality critically, simultaneously objectifying and acting upon that reality. A mere-perception of reality not followed by this critical intervention will not lead to a transformation of objective reality --precisely because it is not a true perception. This is the case of a purely subjectivist perception by someone who forsakes objective reality and creates a false substitute.

The Oppressor and The Oppressed The pedagogy of the oppressed, ..

Some of these reflections emerged as a result of conversations with Pedagogy of the Oppressed Ch.

The first and obvious thing to say is that pedagogues have a fundamentally different focus to subject teachers. Their central concern is with the well-being of those they are among and with. In many respects, as Kerry Young (1999) has argued with regard to youth work, pedagogues are involved for much of the time in an exercise in moral philosophy. Those they are working with are frequently seeking to answer in some way profound questions about themselves and the situations they face. At root these look to how people should live their lives: ‘what is the right way to act in this situation or that; of what does happiness consist for me and for others; how should I to relate to others; what sort of society should I be working for?’ (Smith and Smith 2008: 20). In turn, pedagogues need to have spent some time reflecting themselves upon what might make for flourishing and happiness (in Aristotle’s terms eudaimonia).

On the other hand, at a certain point in their existential experience the oppressed feel an irresistible attraction towards the oppressors and their way of life. Sharing this way of life becomes an overpowering aspiration. In their alienation, the oppressed want at any cost to resemble the oppressors, to imitate them, to follow them. This phenomenon is especially prevalent in the middle-class oppressed, who yearn to be equal to the "eminent" men and women of the upper class. Albert Memmi, in an exceptional analysis of the "colonized mentality," refers to the contempt he felt towards the colonizer, mixed with "passionate" attraction towards him.

Pedagogy of the Oppressed Summary | SuperSummary Paulo Freire.

[1] His book, Pedagogy of the Oppressed, termed a “classic” and “a seminal work”, 2.

At the centre of his theory of education and of schooling is the idea of ‘educational teaching’ or ‘educating instruction’ (erzieinder Unterricht). Hilgenheger (1993: 651-2) makes the following observations:

As Hamilton (1999: 143) has put it, Herbart sought to devise, from first principles, an educational system and thus worked towards a general theory of pedagogics (see, for example, Allgemeine pädagogik – General Pedagogics, 1806 and Umriss Pädagogischer Vorlesungen, 1835 – Plan of Lectures on Pedagogy and included in Herbart 1908).

Paulo Freire, Pedagogy of the Oppressed.
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On the aesthetic education of man: In a series of letters.

But even when the contradiction is resolved authentically by a situation established by the liberated laborers, the former oppressors do not feel liberated. On the contrary, they genuinely consider themselves to be oppressed. Conditioned by the experience of oppressing others, any situation other than their former seems to them like oppression. Formerly, they could eat, dress, wear shoes, travel, and hear Beethoven; while millions did not eat, had no clothes or shoes, neither studied nor traveled much less listened to Beethoven. Any restriction on this way of life, in the rights of the community, appears to the former oppressors as a profound violation of their individual rights -- although they no respect for the millions who suffered and died of hunger, pain, sorrow, and despair. For the oppressors, "human beings" refers only to themselves; other people are "things." For the oppressors, exists only one right: their right to live in peace, over against the right not always even recognized, but simply conceded, of the oppressed to survival. And they make this concession only because the existence of the oppressed is necessary to their own existence.

Journal of Aesthetic Education, 44(2), 1–10.

creative intelligence... critical consciousness, the necessaryprerequisite for accurate perception of the cultural environment, As theindividual's critical consciousness is the basis of freedom and individualitywithin a cultural context. If the term 'individuality' refers to anindividual's human potential for self-realization, then teaching methodologieswhich cultivate a non-critical conformity to the cultural consciousness - thecultural values and belief systems - do not foster true individuality withinthe cultural context.

Whitehead 1967 Aims of Education. :Free Press

These ideas found their way across the channel and into English-language books and manuals about teaching – especially those linked to Herbart. Perhaps the best known text was Alexander Bain’s Education as a Science (first published in 1879 – and reprinted 16 or more times over the next twenty years). However, its influence was to prove limited. Brian Simon (1981) in an often cited chapter ‘Why no pedagogy in England?’, argued that with changes in schooling in the latter years of the nineteenth century and growing government intervention there was much less emphasis upon on intellectual growth and much more on containment. In addition the psychology upon which it was based was increasingly called into question. Simon (1981: 1) argued:

America is associated with being "The land of the free"....

This approach did not go unchallenged at the time. There were those who argued that teaching should become part of the human rather than ‘exact’ sciences (see Hamilton 1999: 145-6). Rather than seeking to construct detailed systems of instruction, the need was to explore the human experience of teaching, learning and schooling. It was through educational practice and reflection upon it (‘learning by doing’) and exploring the settings in which it happens that greater understanding would develop. In Germany some of those arguing against an over-focus on method and state control of curricula looked to social pedagogy with its focus on community and democracy (see below).

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