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Essays and links to information critical of global warming claims.
Before humans began to alter “natural” evolution with selective breeding, genetic engineering, and the like, has been largely thought to be the result of populations becoming genetically isolated, primarily through geographic isolation, and isolated populations continue to evolve and adapt to their environments. Eventually, the separated populations become separate species. Even , but the general concept is that if two sexually reproducing organisms can breed and produce fertile offspring, they are of the same species. In light of evolutionary theory, human races are simply genetically isolated populations that have evolved as they adapted to their environments, but all races can interbreed, so humanity is a single species. Recent DNA studies suggest that to northern climates, and white skin may be only six thousand years old, and are similarly new and developed in the same vicinity. As and subsequent Industrial Revolution have ended a great deal of genetic isolation, the adaptive differences seen in the races have been gradually disappearing as multiracial offspring have increased. If humanity attains the FE epoch, “” will disappear along with geographic isolation.
Investigating the Cryogenian Ice Age led to finding evidence of runaway effects causing dramatic environmental changes, and the Cryogenian Ice Age’s dynamics will be investigated and debated for many years. The position of Antarctica at the South Pole and the landlocked Arctic Ocean have been key variables in initiating the current ice age, and another continental configuration that could contribute to initiating an ice age is , which and . A hypothesis is that can accompany supercontinents, so warm water is not pushed to the poles as vigorously. A supercontinent near the equator would not normally have ice sheets, which means that would be enhanced and remove more carbon dioxide than usual. Those conditions could initiate an ice age, beginning at the poles. It would start out as sea ice, floating atop the oceans.
An overview of the greenhouse effect and global warming.
appeared in the Mesozoic and required oxygen to form calcium carbonate. They became so abundant in the high oxygen of the late Cretaceous that the rain of their bodies on ocean floors gave the its name: chalk (the Latin name). Calcium carbonate, the primary constituent of limestone, comes in two forms: and . The magnesium content in the oceans, as well as the ocean temperature, determines which form of calcium carbonate will dominate. The also marked the end of a 100-million-year ice age and gave way to about 200 million years of hot times. During , Earth has . That pattern also seems . Hot seas are generally and cold seas are usually . Calcite seas create , which influence the biome that forms. The and periods had vast carbonate hardgrounds, which disappeared during the and returned in the Greenhouse Earth age of dinosaurs, becoming common in the Jurassic. Today’s Icehouse Earth has aragonite seas, so organisms that form calcium carbonate shells use aragonite, which is less stable than calcite and its formation is sensitive to temperature and acidity. Coral reefs, key phytoplankton (which help produce Earth’s oxygen), and shellfish use aragonite today to form their shells. There is already that acidification of the oceans due to humanity’s burning of fossil hydrocarbon deposits to power the industrial age is interfering with the ability of coral, carbonate-forming phytoplankton, and shellfish to form their shells. That is only one of the industrial age’s many deleterious ecosystem impacts. The current aragonite-formation situation is not a theoretical construct of fearful environmentalists, but is a .
When sea levels rise as dramatically as they did in the Cretaceous, coral reefs will be buried under rising waters and the ideal position, for both photosynthesis and oxygenation, is lost, and reefs can die, like burying a tree’s roots. About 125 mya, reefs made by , which thrived on , began to displace reefs made by stony corals. They may have prevailed because they could tolerate hot and saline waters better than stony corals could. About 116 mya, an , probably caused by volcanism, which temporarily halted rudist domination. But rudists flourished until the late Cretaceous, when they went extinct, perhaps due to changing climate, although there is also evidence that the rudists . Carbon dioxide levels steadily fell from the early Cretaceous until today, temperatures fell during the Cretaceous, and hot-climate organisms gradually became extinct during the Cretaceous. Around 93 mya, , perhaps caused by underwater volcanism, which again seems to have largely been confined to marine biomes. It was much more devastating than the previous one, and rudists were hit hard, although it was a more regional event. That event seems to have , and a family of . On land, , some of which seem to have , also went extinct. There had been a decline in sauropod and ornithischian diversity before that 93 mya extinction, but it subsequently rebounded. In the oceans, biomes beyond 60 degrees latitude were barely impacted, while those closer to the equator were devastated, which suggests that oceanic cooling was related. shows rising oxygen and declining carbon dioxide in the late Cretaceous, which reflected a general cooling trend that began in the mid-Cretaceous. Among the numerous hypotheses posited, late Cretaceous climate changes have been invoked for slowly driving dinosaurs to extinction, in the “they went out with a whimper, not a bang” scenario. However, it seems that dinosaurs did go out with a bang. A big one. Ammonoids seem to have been brought to the brink with nearly marine mass extinctions during their tenure on Earth, and it was no different with that late-Cretaceous extinction. Ammonoids recovered once again, and their lived in the late Cretaceous, but the end-Cretaceous extinction marked their final appearance as they went the way of and other iconic animals.
What is global warming, or climate change.
Human-agency skeptics emphasize climate change above all other factors, but that seems a argument. Many of the had lived for more than 10 million years and longer, such as that . Many others appeared the current ice age and lived for more than a million years, to suddenly go extinct when humans appeared. Scientists have counted , and . The most . How can guilds that lived uninterrupted for at least 40 million years, in an increasingly cold and arid world, and survived many climate fluctuations of the current ice age in fine shape, suddenly go extinct, worldwide, wherever humans appeared, and it was all due to climate?
What human-agency skeptics have ignored or argued around are unique features of the megafauna that went extinct the humans that preyed on them, while they examined minutia. ever before humans arrived. As , African elephants help create the biomes they live in, as terraforming agents. They were far from idle browsers and grazers, but had outsized impacts on the vegetation, soils, and geological features such as water holes. Dinosaurs may have had similar biome impacts, and it was probably a feature of that large herbivore guild. Scientists have been finding plenty of evidence that vegetation changes that human-agency skeptics attribute to climate change may well be largely the of the guild’s disappearance, not a cause. Researchers in Africa have also discovered that changes wrought by elephants created biomes dependent on elephant management. When elephants disappeared, so did the biomes that they created, which is why smaller species could also disappear when the large herbivore guild vanished. Although Australia was the only non-Antarctic continent without proboscideans 50 kya, and its guilds were comprised of somewhat smaller animals, probably reflecting inherent differences between placental and marsupial mammals, Australia's large herbivores probably had similar biome impacts.
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Is the threat of global warming real.
Although knowledge that we are not alone in the universe will change humanity’s self-image, and , changing humanity’s economic and environmental situation is by far the most important upshot of the UFO/ET issue, which Greer also realized; he has for many years. He that I helped , when I learned from him about how large the , and that was consistent with my experiences.
What does the greenhouse effect have to do with global warming.
The deindustrialization and of the USA's economy since the energy crisis of 1973-1974 has also been class warfare by the global capitalist class against the global working class, in what has been called the "." But class warfare and other such strategies are doomed ways to maintain or enhance one's economic position, as energy is the basis for of the world’s wealth. The in the past generation, which further enrich the rich at the expense of the lower classes. If the American dollar loses its (more a question of when, rather than if), another subsidy to the American economy will disappear, which will further mark the USA's decline as an imperial power. There are , other than for people to get out of the way and stop suppressing FE and its attendant technologies, either consciously, as the , or mindlessly, as when the masses those trying to introduce FE and prevent , or unless there is immediate personal gain for doing so.
Bush in 2000, Gore focused his full attention back on global warming.
The idea of discretionary income is probably the financial economy's closest concept to , and the idea of savings is the financial economy's closest idea to stored energy. As the American middle class has been shrinking, discretionary income has been vanishing. That trend happened in history's richest and most powerful nation during the 40 years since energy consumption began declining. Global oil production peaked in 2006, and the rest of the world's nations will decline like the USA has, but from a far lower initial plateau. Those are the important measures, not financial ones. In a world of scarcity, the exchange function of economics assumes great importance at the social level, as people scrap for their piece of the scarce economic pie. But fighting over slices does not help grow the pie. In a world of abundance, money and financial concepts truly become meaningless.
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